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    Heat Pipe Reliability Guide

    Application Note
    Heat pipes

    ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (ACT) HAS WORKED EXTENSIVELY ON HEAT PIPE PRODUCT RELIABILITY. This guide provides information for designing, modeling, and practical reliability surrounding copper/water heat pipes.

    A heat pipe is a two phase heat transfer device with very high “effective” thermal conductivity. It is a vacuum tight device consisting of an envelope, a working fluid, and a wick structure. As shown below, the heat input vaporizes the liquid working fluid inside the wick in the evaporator section. The saturated vapor, carrying the latent heat of vaporization, flows towards the colder condenser section. In the condenser, the vapor condenses and gives up its latent heat. The condensed liquid returns to the evaporator through the wick structure by capillary action. The phase change processes and two phase flow circulation continue as long as the temperature gradient between the evaporator and condenser are maintained.

    Thermal Solutions for Power Electronics

    Application Note
    Thermal Solutions
    Power Electronics
    Power Generation
    Operational Equipment

    Power Electronics are the most critical components in a large number of applications; including power generation and operational equipment. Power Electronics module manufacturers invest millions of dollars to make these devices as effcient as possible, aiming primarily to reduce waste heat. However, even with effciency gains at the module level, overall waste heat is rising across the industry due to more system and user driven functional requirements. Increased system capability leads to higher power densities and more waste heat! Selecting off the shelf thermal solutions is no longer a viable option for applications that are pushing the envelope on power and operating effciency.

    Investing in an optimal thermal solution can be the design change with the largest payback potential in a high power system. If properly designed, the thermal management system should not only meet performance requirements, but do so while minimizing energy usage. This eBook provides a guide for designers looking to expand the operating limits of traditional air and liquid cooled thermal solutions.

    LeCroy Mixed Signal Oscilloscope - Measurement

    LeCroy Mixed Signal Oscilloscope - Measurement

    Pulse Measurement

    The oscilloscope has been a primary tool for electronic design engineers since the invention of that instrument, many years ago. The first decades of oscilloscopes were “analog” in nature.


    Technical Webinar: Maximizing Reliability in Signal Switching

    Technical Webinar: Maximizing Reliability in Signal Switching

    On-Demand Webinar
    Wednesday, August 26, 2020 - 8:00am to 12:00pm
    Signal Switching

    Gain insights into the importance of switching in test systems and what items need careful consideration. These include which type of relay is most suitable, how to choose the right relay, avoiding relay failures and design issues.

    Join Pickering's technical experts for this live webinar as we discuss key trends, challenges and considerations for your test system switching.

    Why you should join us:

    • Learn important guidelines that will make your switching more reliable
    • Understand the difference between Electro-Mechanical Relays (EMRs), Solid-State Relays and Reed Relays
    • How to choose the right relay based on your application and specifications
    • How to avoid common relay failures and issues

    Date: August 26, 2020


    • 8:00 AM PDT
    • 11:00 AM EDT
    • 4:00 PM BST
    • 5:00 PM CEST

    If you can't make the live event, please register and we will send you the recording. For additional information, please feel free to contact us.

    Debugging Automotive Ethernet Links

    Debugging Automotive Ethernet Links

    On-Demand Webinar
    Wednesday, September 16, 2020 - 11:00am to 12:00pm
    Automotive Ethernet

    Have you ever had a device which passed compliance but did not establish a communication link between Master and Slave? Join Teledyne LeCroy for this webinar as we explore some of the different approaches for debugging Automotive Ethernet links by looking at both the physical and protocol layers.

    Who should attend: Engineers and technicians who have worked on or will work on Automotive Ethernet. This session will start with the basics and build on them to cover debugging techniques.

    What attendees learn: A working knowledge of how Automotive Ethernet frames compare to standard Ethernet frames, how the link startup sequence works, and how to debug Automotive Ethernet links.

    Presenter: Bob Mart, Director of Product Management, Teledyne LeCroy

    Register now

    Can't attend live? Register anyway, and we will send you the recording and slides afterward.

    A Simple Demonstration of Where Return Current Flows

    Current Flows
    Current probes
    3D Field Solver
    Return path

    For ten years, I’ve had the honor of presenting a tutorial session at the IEEE EMC Symposium. I’m usually positioned right after Bruce Archambeault. This means I get to listen to Bruce talk about inductance. While I think of myself as a bit of an expert on inductance, I always learn something new when I listen to Bruce.

    One example he shows, using a simulation of where current flows, will completely recalibrate your intuition if you have never thought about this question. This example stuck with me for more than a dozen years since I originally saw it. Recently, I had a chance to play with the Teledyne LeCroy CP031A current probe used with our scopes and I realized this classic simulation example could be demonstrated with a simple measurement.

    Simulating Where Return Current Flows

    Bruce published his simulation in the IEEE EMC Magazine in 2008. Using his IBM proprietary 3D field solver, he built a U shaped microstrip with a signal launched into one end, terminated to the plane at the other end. He sent in a sine wave at 1 kHz and plotted the current in the signal conductor and the return current distribution in the plane. Then he changed the frequency to 50 kHz and then 1 MHz. The return current distribution in the plane below the signal trace dramatically changes. Figure 1 shows his simulated result for these three different frequencies.


    Figure 1. Bruce Archambeault’s simulation of the signal and return current in a microstrip. This is the result from a proprietary IBM field solver. Reprinted with permission.

    Probe Safety Demystified: Dynamic Range and Voltage Swing

    Dynamic Range
    Probe Safety
    Voltage Swing

    One of the most basic things to know when using any probe is “what is the maximum voltage the device can safely measure?” The answer isn’t as straightforward as you might imagine, it requires understanding several key probe specifications as well as the nature of your signal.

    Single-ended Range

    Everyone is pretty familiar with single-ended range: that's the maximum safe voltage input to ground, shown in Figure 1. Ground is directly tied to oscilloscope ground, which is tied to building ground. Therefore, when measuring voltage within this range using a single-ended probe, the ground connection cannot be a floating voltage, or you could damage the probe, the DUT, the oscilloscope...maybe yourself, as well. Single-ended voltage must be a grounded voltage on your board or something that could be tied to ground.

    Dynamic Range and Maximum Non-destruct Input Voltage

    Differential mode range is measured between inputs.

    Figure 2. Differential mode range is measured between inputs.

    Differential range (DMR) is the maximum instantaneous voltage that can safely appear between the two inputs of a differential amplifier, shown in Figure 2. You don't need a ground or a board reference connection. It's very easy to do, but pay attention to the common mode range (CMR) of the probe to make sure you don't exceed it, either. Each one of those plus and minus inputs has a maximum input voltage compared to ground that it's rated for, as well, as shown in Figure 3. As we discussed in an earlier post on dynamic ranges, the common-mode range is not always symmetrical with respect to ground, which means that in some amplifiers, the common-mode range in the positive direction from ground will be different from that in the negative direction. 

    Common mode range is measured each input to ground.

    Figure 3. Common mode range is measured either input to ground.

    In the high-voltage probe world, we know that CMR (and the source impedance of the load) dictates the Measurement Category (CAT) rating, and it's typically at 1000 V but could be higher or lower. CMR is not normally directly measured by the probe (as is DMR), but is achieved through the probe’s topology. It’s important to be sure your probe has a suitable common mode range for the circuit you're going to be connected to.

    Pre-Compliance EMC Testing with a Real Time Scope

    Pre-Compliance EMC Testing with a Real Time Scope

    On-Demand Webinar
    Thursday, September 17, 2020 - 10:00am to 11:00am
    EMC Testing

    Before an EMC compliance test, there are a few simple measurements that can be performed on the lab bench to indicate potential test failures. While only near-field emissions can be measured, they can sometimes indicate potential far-field problems that might cause an EMC test failure.

    Join us for our new two-part webinar series for measurement tips to overcome these challenges.

    In this webinar, we demonstrate how the combination of a real time oscilloscope and near field probes can give us insight into how physical interconnect structures cause pathological EMC problems.

    Register now

    In Part 2 we will explore detecting potential EMC failures measured with real time spectral analysis. Click here to register.

    Presenter: Dr. Eric Bogatin, Signal Integrity Evangelist, Teledyne LeCroy

    Can't attend live? Register anyway, and we will send you the recording and slides afterward. 

    WT5000 Precision Power Analyzer - Reliable, Versatile and Simple

    WT5000 Precision Power Analyzer - Reliable, Versatile and Simple

    Power analyzers

    The WT5000, the Next Generation in Precision of Yokogawa’s Power Analyzers product line. A versatile platform that delivers extraordinary precision and exceptional performance for the most demanding applications.


    Next Generation in Power Measurements

    Next Generation in Power Measurements

    Power Measurements

    Engineers in transportation, power generation, consumer electronics and industrial equipment are facing complex measurement challenges as they adopt faster development cycles to meet changing market requirements while complying with stringent quality standards. In this 45 minute webinar you will learn about how next generation power analyzers, such as the new Yokogawa WT5000, can help engineers get reliable and actionable insights from their test bench or measurement setup.

    This includes : Multi-channel measurements, Mechatronic analysis and motor evaluation, Advanced filtering, harmonics and noise, Modular architecture and platform extensibility and Guaranteed accuracy and accredited calibration.